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Tooth and gum problems can happen to anyone even if you have a regular oral hygiene routine. A sticky clear or slightly yellowish film consisting of bacteria, plaque adheres to your tooth enamel and builds-up, and if not removed, can harden into calculus, commonly referred to as tarter. A high blood glucose level contributes to bacterial growth.

You will then often get red, sore, and swollen gums that bleed easily when you brush your teeth; these are the first signs of periodontal disease, which in addition to affecting your teeth can affect jawbone density. Advanced periodontal disease can cause your gums to pull away from your teeth, and they may become loose and fall out.

Smoking is a major contributor to gum disease and other oral problems, especially for patients with diabetes and who are 45 years of age or older.